The history of the development of electrochemical cells is crucial to the scientific study and industrial applications of electricity, for prior to the rise of electrical grids around the end of the 19th century, they were the main source of electricity. Successive improvements in battery technology permitted the rise of major electrical advances, from early scientific study to the rise of telegraphs and portable electronics.In 1749, Benjamin Franklin first used the term "battery" to described a set of linked capacitors he used for his experiments with electricity. These capacitors were panels of glass coated with metal on each surface. These capacitors were charged with a static generator and discharged by touching metal to their electrode. Linking them together in a "battery" gave a stronger discharge.
However, Alessandro Volta, a friend and fellow scientist, disagreed, believing this phenomenon was actually caused by two different metals being joined together by a moist intermediary. He experimentally verified this hypothesis, and published it in 1791. In 1800 Volta invented the first true battery which came to be known as the Voltaic Pile.
Consumable dry cells are sold in a great rate ,they are used in different fields and they are available in a variety of sizes,emf values,….etc.consumable dry cells are not recycled,they are thrown without having a special treatment because batteries contain toxic elements inside it so they need a special factories by which we can safely get rid of them.these dry cells nowadays are an important factor that causes pollution,so the world started to search for sources that are less polluting and are not limited by supply.there are many alternative sources the humanity nowadays is using as solar energy,wind energy,hydroelectric energy,geothermal energy,ocean energy…..etc.
Solar energy is one of the most important alternative energy sources,and relating this field to batteries solar energy helped in decreasing the use of the dry cells by inventing the solar batteries .